parasitology

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

parasitology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأربعاء إبريل 24, 2013 4:19 pm


introduction

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question, but by their way of life.
This means it forms a synthesis of other disciplines, and draws on techniques from fields such as cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology.

Medical parasitology

"Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth".
One of the largest fields in parasitology, medical parasitology is the subject which deals with the parasites that infect humans, the diseases caused by them, clinical picture and the response generated by humans against them. It is also concerned with the various methods of their diagnosis, treatment and finally their prevention & control. A parasite is an organism that live on or within another organism called the host .
These include organisms such as:

Plasmodium spp., the protozoan parasite which causes malaria. The four species of malaria parasites infective to humans are Plasmodium falciparum,Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax & Plasmodium ovale.
Leishmania donovani, the unicellular organism which causes leishmaniasis
Entamoeba and Giardia, which cause intestinal infections (dysentery and diarrhoea)
Multicellular organisms and worms such as Schistosoma spp., Wuchereria bancrofti, Necator americanus (hookworm) and Taenia spp. (tapeworm)
Ectoparasites such as ticks, scabies and lice
Medical parasitology can involve drug development, epidemiological studies and study of zoonoses.

Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans, causing parasitic diseases.
Human parasites are divided into endoparasites, which cause infection inside the body, and ectoparasites, which cause infection superficially within the skin.
The cysts and eggs of endoparasites may be found in feces which aids in the detection of the parasite in the human host while also providing a means for the parasitic species to exit the current host and enter other hosts. - Although there are number of ways in which humans can contract parasitic infections, observing basic hygiene and cleanliness tips can reduce its probability.
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