Otitis media

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Otitis media

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد يونيو 30, 2013 5:08 pm

Otitis media

Otitis media (Latin for "inflammation of the middle ear") is the medical term for middle ear infection. Although several subtypes of otitis media are distinguished, the term is often used synonymously with acute otitis media. It is very common in childhood.
صورة
A view of the tympanic membrane showing acute otitis media

Signs and symptoms

An integral symptom of acute otitis media is ear pain; other possible symptoms include fever, and irritability (in infants). Since an acute otitis media is usually precipitated by an upper respiratory tract infection, there often are accompanying symptoms like cough and nasal discharge.

Causes

Diagnosis

Acute otitis media

Acute otitis media (AOM) is usually developing on the basis of a (viral) upper respiratory infection with blockage of the Eustachian tube and effusion in the middle ear, when the fluid in the middle ear gets additionally infected with bacteria. The most common bacteria found in this case are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Otitis media with effusion

Chronic suppurative otitis media

Chronic suppurative otitis media involves a perforation (hole) in the tympanic membrane and active bacterial infection within the middle ear space for several weeks or more. There may be enough pus that it drains to the outside of the ear (otorrhea), or the purulence may be minimal enough to only be seen on examination using a binocular microscope. This disease is much more common in persons with poor Eustachian tube function. Hearing impairment often accompanies this disease.

Adhesive otitis media


المزيد
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otitis_media

Otitis Media



المزيد
صورة

مشاركات: 11242
اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Otitis media

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد يونيو 30, 2013 10:50 pm

Middle ear

The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles, which couple vibration of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear. The hollow space of the middle ear has also been called the tympanic cavity, or cavum tympani.

The eustachian tube joins the tympanic cavity with the nasal cavity (nasopharynx), allowing pressure to equalize between the middle ear and throat.
The primary function of the middle ear is to efficiently transfer acoustic energy from compression waves in air to fluid–membrane waves within the cochlea.
صورة
Bones and muscles in the tympanic cavity in the middle ear

Contents
1 Sound transfer
2 Ossicles
3 Muscles
4 Nerves
5 Comparative anatomy
6 Disorders of the middle ear
7 Additional images
8 References
9 External links
المزيد
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_ear

middle ear




المزيد
صورة

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Otitis media

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد يونيو 30, 2013 11:03 pm

The Ear

The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system.
Often the entire organ is considered the ear, though it may also be considered just the visible portion. In most mammals, the visible ear is a flap of tissue that is also called the pinna (or auricle in humans) and is the first of many steps in hearing. Vertebrates have a pair of ears placed somewhat symmetrically on opposite sides of the head. This arrangement aids in the ability to localize sound sources.
صورة
Human (external) ear

Contents
1 Introduction to ears and hearing
2 Mammalian ear
2.1 Outer ear (pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum)
2.1.1 Human outer ear and culture
2.2 Middle ear
2.3 Inner ear: cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
3 Damage to the human ear
3.1 Outer ear trauma
3.1.1 Auricle
3.1.2 Ear canal
3.2 Middle ear trauma
3.3 Inner ear trauma
4 Vestigial structures
5 Invertebrate hearing organs
6 Additional Images
7 See also
8 References
9 External links


صورة
Anatomy of the human ear. The length of the auditory canal is exaggerated for viewing purposes.

المزيد
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear

The Ear




المزيد
صورة


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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Otitis media

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأربعاء ديسمبر 16, 2015 10:54 pm

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