Diabetes Health Center

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد ديسمبر 30, 2018 10:40 pm

القيم التالية بالترتيب هي القيم التي تُعتبر طبيعية لاختبار تحمل السكر اعتماداً على الجمعية الأمريكية للسكري:

يتم سحب دم لإجراء الاختبار لعدة مرات

فترة الصيام : 95 مليغرام لكل ديسيلتر أو أكثر
بعد ساعة من تناول شراب يحتوي على السكر : أقل من 180 مليجرام لكل ديسيلتر
بعد ساعتين من تناول شراب يحتوي على السكر : أقل من 155 مليغرام لكل ديسيلتر
بعد ثلاث ساعات من تناول شراب يحتوي على السكر : أقل من 140 مليغرام لكل ديسيلتر

https://www.marefa.org/%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8% ... 9%88%D8%B2
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء يناير 01, 2019 8:49 pm

HYPOGLYCAEMIA | ACUTE MANAGEMENT | ABCDE
https://geekymedics.com/hypoglycaemia-a ... -approach/
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء يناير 01, 2019 9:39 pm

BLOOD GLUCOSE MEASUREMENT – OSCE GUIDE
https://geekymedics.com/blood-glucose-measurement/
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء يناير 01, 2019 9:45 pm

DIABETIC FOOT EXAMINATION – OSCE GUIDE
https://geekymedics.com/diabetic-foot-e ... sce-guide/
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس يناير 03, 2019 11:41 pm

روابط مهمة

السكري سؤال وجواب
http://www.khayma.com/tagthia/diabetesfaq.htm

مدونة مرض السكري
http://alsukri.blogspot.com/

مرض السكري النوع الثاني
https://www.dailymedicalinfo.com/view-a ... %AC%D9%87/
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » السبت يناير 05, 2019 5:00 pm

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » السبت يناير 05, 2019 10:03 pm

مطويات تثقيفية عن السكري
https://www.almrsal.com/post/567391
http://alsukri.blogspot.com/p/blog-page.html?m=1

إذاعة مدرسية عن مرض السكري
https://www.alukah.net/social/0/95291/

تعرف علي الانسيولين
posting.php?mode=reply&f=20&t=5519


كيف يُخزّن الإنسيولين ؟ How Insulin stores
http://alsukri.blogspot.com/2015/08/how ... tores.html
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يناير 18, 2019 10:28 pm

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يناير 18, 2019 10:40 pm

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Although onset frequently occurs in childhood, the disease can also develop in adults

See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM.

Signs and symptoms
The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows:

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Polyphagia
Unexplained weight loss
Other symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, and blurred vision.

The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 diabetes to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Diagnosis
Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following
:

A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L), or

A 2-hour plasma glucose level ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or

A random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis

Lab studies

A fingerstick glucose test is appropriate for virtually all patients with diabetes. All fingerstick capillary glucose levels must be confirmed in serum or plasma to make the diagnosis. All other laboratory studies should be selected or omitted on the basis of the individual clinical situation.

An international expert committee appointed by the ADA, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Association recommended the HbA1c assay for diagnosing type 1 diabetes only when the condition is suspected but the classic symptoms are absent. [3]

Screening

Screening for type 1 diabetes in asymptomatic low-risk individuals is not recommended. [2] However, in patients at high risk (eg, those who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes), it may be appropriate to perform annual screening for anti-islet antibodies before the age of 10 years, along with 1 additional screening during adolescence. [4]

See Workup for more detail.

Management
Glycemic control

The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years. [5] Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality.

Self-monitoring

Optimal diabetic control requires frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, which allows rational adjustments in insulin doses. All patients with type 1 diabetes should learn how to self-monitor and record their blood glucose levels with home analyzers and adjust their insulin doses accordingly.

Real-time continuous monitoring of glucose—using continuous glucose monitors (CGMs)—can help patients improve glycemic control. [6, 7] CGMs contain subcutaneous sensors that measure interstitial glucose levels every 1-5 minutes, providing alarms when glucose levels are too high or too low or are rapidly rising or falling.

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يناير 18, 2019 10:46 pm

Insulin therapy

Patients with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Insulin replacement is accomplished by giving a basal insulin and a preprandial (premeal) insulin. The basal insulin is either long-acting (glargine or detemir) or intermediate-acting (NPH). The preprandial insulin is either rapid-acting (lispro, aspart, insulin inhaled, or glulisine) or short-acting (regular).

Common insulin regimens include the following:

Split or mixed : NPH with rapid-acting (eg, lispro, aspart, or glulisine) or regular insulin before breakfast and supper

Split or mixed variant : NPH with rapid-acting or regular insulin before breakfast, rapid-acting or regular insulin before supper, and NPH before bedtime (the idea is to reduce fasting hypoglycemia by giving the NPH later in the
(evening

Multiple daily injections (MDI) : A long-acting insulin (eg, glargine or detemir) once a day in the morning or evening (or twice a day in about 20% of patients) and a rapid-acting insulin before meals or snacks (with the dose adjusted according to the carbohydrate intake and the blood glucose level

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII): Rapid-acting insulin infused continuously 24 hours a day through an insulin pump at 1 or more basal rates, with additional boluses given before each meal and correction doses administered if blood glucose levels exceed target levels

Diet and activity

All patients on insulin should have a comprehensive diet plan, created with the help of a professional dietitian, that includes the following:

A daily caloric intake prescription

Recommendations for amounts of dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein

Instructions on how to divide calories between meals and snacks

Exercise is also an important aspect of diabetes management. Patients should be encouraged to exercise regularly.

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview

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