Diabetes Health Center

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Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس يونيو 27, 2013 6:30 pm

Diabetes Overview


Almost everyone knows someone who has diabetes.
An estimated 23.6 million people in the United States -- 7.8 percent of the population -- have diabetes, a serious, lifelong condition. Of those, 17.9 million have been diagnosed, and about 5.7 million people have not yet been diagnosed. Each year, about 1.6 million people aged 20 or older are diagnosed with diabetes.


What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism -- the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of sugar.

What are the types of diabetes?

The three main types of diabetes are

type 1 diabetes
type 2 diabetes
gestational diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live.

At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes the body's immune system to attack the beta cells, but they believe that autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors, possibly viruses, are involved. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of diagnosed diabetes in the United States. It develops most often in children and young adults, but can appear at any age.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop over a short period, although beta cell destruction can begin years earlier. Symptoms include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. If not diagnosed and treated with insulin, a person with type 1 diabetes can lapse into a life-threatening diabetic coma, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis.

Type 2 Diabetes

The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. About 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. This form of diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and ethnicity. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.

Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents. About 3,700 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with diabetes based on 2002-2003 data.

When type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown reasons, the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. After several years, insulin production decreases. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes -- glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop gradually. Their onset is not as sudden as in type 1 diabetes. Symptoms may include fatigue or nausea, frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow healing of wounds or sores. Some people have no symptoms.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes develops only during pregnancy. Like type 2 diabetes, it occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and among women with a family history of diabetes. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 20 to 50 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years.

What are the tests for diagnosing diabetes?

The fasting plasma glucose test is the preferred test for diagnosing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is most reliable when done in the morning. However, a diagnosis of diabetes can be made after positive results on any one of three tests, with confirmation from a second positive test on a different day:

A random (taken any time of day) plasma glucose value of 200 mg/dL or more, along with the presence of diabetes symptoms.
A plasma glucose value of 126 mg/dL or more after a person has fasted for 8 hours.

An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) plasma glucose value of 200 mg/dL or more in a blood sample taken 2 hours after a person has consumed a drink containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water. This test, taken in a laboratory or the doctor's office, measures plasma glucose at timed intervals over a 3-hour period.

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed based on plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT. Glucose levels are normally lower during pregnancy, so the threshold values for diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy are lower. If a woman has two plasma glucose values meeting or exceeding any of the following numbers, she has gestational diabetes: a fasting plasma glucose level of 95 mg/dL, a 1-hour level of 180 mg/dL, a 2-hour level of 155 mg/dL, or a 3-hour level of 140 mg/dL.

(What are the other forms of impaired glucose metabolism (also called pre-diabetes ?

People with pre-diabetes, a state between "normal" and "diabetes," are at risk for developing diabetes, heart attacks, and strokes. However, studies suggest that weight loss and increased physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes, as weight loss and physical activity make the body more sensitive to insulin. There are two forms of pre-diabetes.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/diabetes-overview
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس يونيو 27, 2013 10:56 pm

What are the other forms of impaired glucose metabolism (also called pre-diabetes)? continued...

Impaired Fasting Glucose

A person has impaired fasting glucose (IFG) when fasting plasma glucose is 100 to 125 mg/dL. This level is higher than normal but less than the level indicating a diagnosis of diabetes.

Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) means that blood glucose during the oral glucose tolerance test is higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IGT is diagnosed when the glucose level is 140 to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after a person drinks a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose.

An estimated 57 million people over age 20 have impaired fasting glucose, suggesting that at least that many adults had pre-diabetes in 2007.

What are the scope and impact of diabetes?

Diabetes is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. In 2006, it was the seventh leading cause of death. However, diabetes is likely to be underreported as the underlying cause of death on death certificates.

Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body. The disease often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes.

Who gets diabetes?

Diabetes is not contagious. People cannot "catch" it from each other. However, certain factors can increase the risk of developing diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes occurs equally among males and females, but is more common in whites than in nonwhites. Data from the World Health Organization's Multinational Project for Childhood Diabetes indicate that type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, American Indian, and Asian populations.
However, some northern European countries, including Finland and Sweden, have high rates of type 1 diabetes. The reasons for these differences are unknown.

Type 2 diabetes is more common in older people, especially in people who are overweight, and occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islander Americans, and Hispanic Americans. On average, non-Hispanic African Americans are 1.6 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites of the same age.
Hispanic Americans are 1.5 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites of similar age. American Indians have one of the highest rates of diabetes in the world. On average, American Indians and Alaska Natives are 2.2 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites of similar age. Although prevalence data for diabetes among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are limited, some groups, such as Native Hawaiians and Japanese and Filipino residents of Hawaii aged 20 or older, are about twice as likely to have diabetes as white residents of Hawaii of similar age.

The prevalence of diabetes in the United States is likely to increase for several reasons. First, a large segment of the population is aging. Also, Hispanic Americans and other minority groups make up the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population. Finally, Americans are increasingly overweight and sedentary. According to recent estimates, the prevalence of diabetes in the United States is predicted to reach 8.9 percent of the population by 2025.

http://diabetes.webmd.com/diabetes-overview?page=3
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس يونيو 27, 2013 11:00 pm

1 Type 1 Diabetes

2 Type 2 Diabetes

3 Gestational Diabetes

4 Prediabetes

5 Diabetes Insipidus
==============

Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding type 1 diabetes is the first step to managing it. Get information on type 1 diabetes causes, risk factors, warning signs, and prevention tips.

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes Overview
Normally, the body's immune system fights off foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria.
But for unknown reasons, in people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks various cells in the body.
This results in a complete deficiency of the insulin hormone.

Understanding Insulin and Type 1 Diabetes (overview

http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1-diabetes

hypoglycemia

http://diabetes.webmd.com/diabetes-hypoglycemia


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA

http://diabetes.webmd.com/ketoacidosis


Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes?
What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?
What Are the Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes?
How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed?
How Is Type 1 Diabetes Managed?

http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1-diabetes?page=2


diabetes blood tests.
check your blood sugar levels

http://diabetes.webmd.com/how-test-blood-glucose


Consequences of Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes

http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1-diabetes?page=3

Retinopathy.

http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-problems

Kidney damage

http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabetes-kidney-disease

Poor blood circulation and nerve damage

http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/heart-blood-disease
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس يونيو 27, 2013 11:30 pm

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Symptoms

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop quickly, over a few days to weeks, and are caused by blood sugar levels rising above the normal range (hyperglycemia). Early symptoms may be overlooked, especially if the person has recently had an illness, such as influenza (flu).

Early symptoms include:

Frequent urination,
which may be more noticeable at night. Some young children who have learned to use the toilet may start wetting the bed during naps or at night.
Extreme thirst and a dry mouth.
Weight loss.
Increased hunger (possibly).

Sometimes the blood sugar level rises excessively before a person knows something is wrong.
Because insulin is not available, the cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy.
The body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When fat is used for energy, ketones-or fatty acids-are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance diabetic ketoacidosis. This is a life-threatening condition.


Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate.
Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal.[1]
Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis.
Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct byproduct of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover.[2] Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone.

Pathophysiology of ketoacidosis


Ketoacidosis occurs when the body is producing large quantities of ketone bodies via the metabolism of fatty acids (ketosis) and the body is producing insufficient insulin to slow this production. The excess ketone bodies can significantly acidify the blood.
The presence of a high concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) caused by the lack of insulin can lead to further acidity.
In healthy individuals this normally does not occur because the pancreas produces insulin in response to rising ketone/blood glucose concentration.
Acidity results from the dissociation of the H+ ion at physiological pH of metabolic ketone bodies such as acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate.
Acetone has no easily liberated proton, and is thus non-acidic in human biochemical environments.


Etiology of ketoacidosis


Two common types are diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis.

In diabetic patients, ketoacidosis is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration.
Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood.
Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis.
In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate .
The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.
A mild acidosis may result from prolonged fasting or when following a ketogenic diet or a very low calorie diet.




Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis are:

Flushed, hot, dry skin.
Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
A strong, fruity breath odor.
Rapid, deep breathing.
Restlessness, drowsiness, difficulty waking up, confusion, or coma. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1- ... s-symptoms


Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 diabetes develops because the body's immune system destroys the beta cells which are in the islet tissue in the pancreas. These beta cells produce insulin. So people with type 1 diabetes cannot make their own insulin.

You can inherit a tendency to develop type 1 diabetes, but most people who have the disease have no family history of it. Diabetes experts believe that a genetic tendency and some environmental factors may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Possible environmental factors include enteroviral infections-especially Coxsackie B infections.

Despite concerns about vaccines (particularly those against whooping cough and Haemophilus influenza type b, or Hib), studies have not found a relationship between being vaccinated and developing type 1 diabetes.1
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1-diabetes-cause


Type 1 Diabetes Exams and Tests

If a person is not in ketoacidosis, the American Diabetes Association's criteria for symptoms, a medical history, a physical exam, and blood tests are used to diagnose type 1 diabetes.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1- ... -and-tests


Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Overview


Type 1 diabetes requires lifelong treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/type-1- ... t-overview


The Basics of a Healthy Diabetes Diet

Contrary to what you may have heard, there is no single "diabetes diet." That means that the foods recommended for a diabetes diet to control blood glucose (or blood sugar) are good for those with diabetes -- and everyone else. You and your family can eat the same healthy foods at mealtime.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabete ... iet-basics
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 28, 2013 12:10 am

Types of Insulin for Diabetes Treatment

There are many forms of insulin to treat diabetes. They are classified by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last.

The types of insulin include:

Rapid-acting
Short-acting
Intermediate-acting
Long-acting
Pre-mixed
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabetes-types-insulin


Type 1 Diabetes Prevention

Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, but ongoing studies are exploring ways to prevent diabetes in those who are most likely to develop it.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabetes-overview-facts


Illustrated Guide to Type 1 Diabetes


Definition
Diabetes is a disease that causes an abnormally high level of sugar, or glucose, to build up in the blood. Type 1 diabetes -- previously labeled insulin-dependent, or juvenile diabetes -- is caused by the destruction of cells in the pancreas (an organ located just behind the stomach) that produce the hormone insulin.

Symptoms
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop from a lack of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cells of the body and not build up in the blood stream. A person with untreated type 1 diabetes may appear quite ill and complain of increased thirst, urination, and appetite as well as weight loss. If these symptoms are not treated quickly, a condition known as ketoacidosis can develop and lead to a dangerously high level of acid in the body -- the result of the body's inability to use glucose for energy.

Lack of Insulin Production
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. The hormone is then released into the bloodstream where it is carried to all cells in the body. Insulin is required to allow glucose (sugar) to enter the cells in the body to be used for energy. The pancreas of a person with type 1 diabetes produces almost no insulin, so the cells of the body are unable to convert blood glucose into energy.

Who's at Risk?
Type 1 diabetes affects about 1% of the population and accounts for about 10% of all people with diabetes. It is usually diagnosed in previously healthy children or young adults. It is one of the most common childhood diseases. About one child or adolescent in 500 in the U.S. has type 1 diabetes. This type of diabetes occurs only about half as often in blacks and Asians as in whites.

SEE ANIMATIONS

http://diabetes.webmd.com/healthtool-ty ... ated-guide
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 28, 2013 8:35 am

Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Type 1 Diabetes

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http://diabetes.webmd.com/ss/slideshow- ... s-overview

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?
In people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make insulin. This vital hormone helps the body's cells convert sugar into energy. Without it, sugar builds up in the blood and can reach dangerous levels. To avoid life-threatening complications, people with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for their entire lives.

Warning Sign: Unusual Thirst
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes tend to come on suddenly and may include:
Feeling more thirsty than usual
Dry mouth
Fruity breath
Frequent urination

Warning Sign: Weight Loss
As blood sugar levels remain high, type 1 diabetes often leads to:
Unintentional weight loss
Increase in appetite
Lack of energy, drowsiness

Warning Sign: Skin Problems
Many people with type 1 diabetes experience uncomfortable skin conditions, including:
Bacterial infections
Fungal infections
Itching, dry skin, poor circulation

Girls with type 1 diabetes are more likely to get genital yeast infections. Babies can develop candidiasis, a severe form of diaper rash caused by yeast that can easily spread from the diaper area to the thighs and stomach.


More Dangerous Signs
When blood sugars are not controlled, type 1 diabetes can cause more serious symptoms, such as:
Numbness or tingling in the feet
Blurred vision
Low blood sugar/hypoglycemia
Loss of consciousness
Some patients have no obvious warning signs before falling into a diabetic coma, which requires emergency treatment.


More Dangerous Signs: Ketoacidosis
Without treatment, type 1 diabetes deprives your cells of the sugar they need for energy. Your body starts burning fat for energy instead, which causes ketones to build up in the blood. These are acids that can poison the body. High levels of acid in your blood and the other abnormalities that result from the change in your blood's pH level may trigger a life-threatening coma known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This is an emergency that must be treated quickly and oftentimes in the hospital.


Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is not under attack and usually produces enough insulin. But for numerous reasons, the body doesn’t use the insulin effectively. The symptoms of the two forms are similar, but usually come on more rapidly in people with type 1.


What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?
Doctors aren't sure what makes the immune system turn against the pancreas, but most suspect a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Scientists have identified 50 genes or gene regions that raise the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. But genetics alone don't account for all the risk, so having these genes doesn’t mean that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes. Some researchers believe that environmental triggers, such as a virus, or dietary or pregnancy-related factors may play a role as well.


Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age. However, it accounts for two-thirds of the new cases of diabetes diagnosed in those under the age of 19. There appear to be two peaks in the "age of onset": the first in early childhood and the second during puberty. The condition affects males and females equally, but is more common in whites than in other ethnic groups. According to the World Health Organization, type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, Native American, and Asian populations.


Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes
Simple blood tests can diagnose diabetes. A fasting blood sugar test or a random blood sugar test (plus the presence of symptoms) can be used. An A1c test, which reveals average blood sugar levels for the past 2-3 months, can also be used. Tests should be repeated on two separate days to diagnose diabetes. A less convenient glucose tolerance test will also help determine whether you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, your doctor may be able to determine the type by checking for certain antibodies in the blood.


Long-Term Complications
Prolonged high blood sugar can damage many of the body's systems over time. People with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of:
Heart disease and stroke
Kidney failure
Vision problems and blindness
Gum disease and tooth loss
Nerve damage in the hands, feet, and organs
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 28, 2013 10:08 am

Monitoring Your Blood Sugar
The first step toward preventing complications is to regularly monitor your blood sugar or glucose level. This involves pricking your finger, putting a drop of blood onto a test strip, and putting the strip into a glucose meter. The results will help you optimize your treatment plan. When your blood sugar stays near the normal range, you'll have more energy, fewer skin problems, and a reduced risk of heart disease and kidney damage.


Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Another way to check blood sugar patterns is with a continuous glucose monitoring system. A sensor measures the level of glucose in the tissue every 10 seconds and sends the information to a cell phone-sized device called a "monitor" that you wear. The system automatically records an average glucose value every five minutes for up to 72 hours. The device is not intended for day-to-day monitoring or long-term self-care, and it is not a replacement for standard blood sugar monitoring. It is only intended for use to discover trends in blood sugar levels.


Diabetes Treatment: Insulin Shots
Everyone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to help the body process blood sugar. Most patients take insulin as an injection and need multiple shots per day. Your healthcare provider will explain how to adjust your insulin shots based on the results of your blood sugar testing. The goal is to keep glucose levels in the normal range as often as possible.


Insulin Reaction Warning Signs
Taking too much insulin can lower your blood sugar to dangerous levels. This is called an insulin reaction. These reactions can be mild, moderate, or severe, requiring the help of others. Warning signs include:
Exhaustion or excessive yawning
Being unable to speak or think clearly
Loss of muscle coordination
Sweating, twitching, turning pale
Seizures
Loss of consciousness


Neutralizing an Insulin Reaction
People who take insulin should carry at least 15 grams of a quick-acting carb at all times. Fast carbs are a way to bring the blood sugar up quickly to combat an insulin reaction. Examples include:
1/2 cup of fruit juice or non-diet soda
1 cup of milk
2 tablespoons of raisins
3 glucose tablets or 5 Lifesavers
If your blood sugar is still too low after 15 minutes, have another 15 grams.
For a severe reaction, a drug called glucagon should be injected under the skin by a family member.


Diabetes Treatment: Insulin Pump
One way to reduce the odds of an insulin reaction is to use an insulin pump. This device provides insulin through a tiny tube inserted into the skin. It delivers insulin around the clock, eliminating the need for insulin shots. An insulin pump can help keep your blood sugar more stable and may allow more flexibility in planning your meals. Insulin pumps do have some disadvantages, so talk to your doctor to learn if this option is right for you.
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 28, 2013 10:19 am

How Well Is Your Treatment Working?
To find out how well your treatment is working, your doctor will probably suggest you have an A1c blood test every three to six months. This test reveals how well your blood sugar has been controlled over the past two to three months. If the results show poor blood sugar control, you may need to adjust your insulin therapy, meal planning, or physical activity.


Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplant
If insulin therapy fails to control your blood sugar or you have frequent insulin reactions, you may be a candidate for pancreatic islet cell transplant. Still an experimental procedure, a surgeon transfers healthy insulin-producing cells from a donor into the pancreas of someone with type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, the results may last only few years. Medications used to prevent rejection are necessary and can have very serious side effects.


Type 1 Diabetes and Exercise
People with type 1 diabetes need to take precautions when exercising. To prevent a sudden drop in blood sugar, your health care team may recommend:
Checking your blood sugar before exercising
Adjusting your insulin dosage before exercising
Eating a snack before or during exercise
Your doctor may also suggest checking your urine for ketones, a sign that your blood sugar is too high. Avoid strenuous activity whenever ketones are present.


Type 1 Diabetes and Diet
There are many myths about what people with diabetes can and cannot eat. The reality is there are no "off limits" foods. You can eat sweets as part of a well-balanced diet and treatment plan. The key is to work with your health care team to balance your insulin therapy, meals, and level of physical activity.


Type 1 Diabetes and Pregnancy
Let your doctor know if you plan to become pregnant. When type 1 diabetes is poorly controlled, it can cause complications, including birth defects. Achieving good blood sugar control before conception lowers the risk of miscarriage and birth defects to a rate similar to that of the general population. It also reduces the risk of complications, such as dangerous increases in blood pressure and damage to the retina in the mother.


Type 1 Diabetes in Children
When a child is diagnosed with diabetes, it affects the whole family in a very practical way. Parents must help children monitor blood sugar, plan meals, and adjust insulin dosages around the clock. Because diabetes requires 24-hour maintenance, arrangements must be made for treatment during school and extracurricular activities. Laws vary from state to state regarding which employees may administer insulin at school.


Hope for an Artificial Pancreas
Researchers are developing a system dubbed the artificial pancreas -- a combination of an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor controlled by a complex computer program. The goal is for the system to automatically release insulin in response to blood sugar levels, and to reduce the release of insulin when blood sugars drop, just the way a real pancreas does. Early trials suggest the approach can improve blood sugar control. An effective artificial pancreas could one day reduce the constant maintenance associated with type 1 diabetes.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/ss/slideshow- ... s-overview
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 28, 2013 10:26 am

10 Diabetes Diet Myths
(A myth is a story that may or may not be true)

Diabetes diet." Simply hearing these words may be enough to make you feel overwhelmed or frustrated.

Perhaps you have said, or heard someone else express, one of these thoughts:

Eating too much sugar causes diabetes.
There are too many rules about choosing foods that are OK in a diabetes diet.
You have to give up all your favorite foods when you're on a diabetes diet.
These three statements are all myths about diabetes diets. Take a closer look at these and other myths to find out the facts about diabetes and diet.

Myth 1: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes.

How does diabetes happen? The causes are not totally understood. What is known is that simply eating too much sugar is unlikely to cause diabetes. Instead, diabetes begins when something disrupts your body's ability to turn the food you eat into energy.

To understand what happens when you have diabetes, keep these things in mind: Your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a type of sugar needed to power your cells. A hormone called insulin is made in the pancreas. Insulin helps the cells in the body use glucose for fuel.

Here are the most common types of diabetes and what researchers know about their causes:

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Without insulin, sugar piles up in your blood vessels. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to help get the sugar into the cells. Type 1 diabetes often starts in younger people or in children. Researchers say that it may occur when something goes wrong with the immune system.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the insulin does not work properly, or both. Being overweight makes type 2 diabetes more likely to occur. It can happen in a person of any age.
Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy in some women. Hormone changes during pregnancy prevent insulin from working properly. Women with gestational diabetes usually need to take insulin. The condition may resolve after birth of the child.


Myth 2: There Are Too Many Rules in a Diabetes Diet.

If you have diabetes, you will need to plan your meals. But the general principle is simple: Following a "diabetes diet" means choosing food that will work along with your activities and any medications to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible.

Will you need to make changes to what you now eat? Probably. But perhaps the changed you need to make will not be as many as you anticipate.
Myth 3: Carbohydrates Are Bad for Diabetes

In fact, carbohydrates -- or "carbs" as most of us refer to them -- are good for diabetes. They form the foundation of a healthy diabetes diet -- or of any healthy diet.

Carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood sugar levels, which is why you are asked to monitor how many carbohydrates you eat when following a diabetes diet.

However, carbohydrate foods contain many essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So one diabetes diet tip is to choose those with the most nutrients, such as whole-grain breads and baked goods, and high-fiber fruits and vegetables. You may find it easier to select the best carbs if you meet with a dietitian.

Myth 4: Protein is Better than Carbohydrates for Diabetes.

Because carbs affect blood sugar levels so quickly, if you have diabetes, you may be tempted to eat less of them and substitute more protein. But too much protein may lead to problems for people with diabetes.

The main problem is that many foods rich in protein, such as meat, may also be filled with saturated fat. Eating too much of these fats increases your risk of heart disease. In a diabetes diet, protein should account for about 15% to 20% of the total calories you eat each day.

Myth 5: You Can Adjust Your Diabetes Drugs to "Cover" Whatever You Eat.

If you use insulin for your diabetes, you may learn how to adjust the amount and type you take to match the amount of food you eat. But this doesn't mean you can eat as much as you want, then just use more drugs to stabilize your blood sugar level.

If you use other types of diabetes drugs, don't try to adjust your dose to match varying levels of carbohydrates in your meals unless instructed by your doctor. Most diabetes medications work best when they are taken consistently as directed by your doctor.

Myth 6: You'll Need to Give Up Your Favorite Foods.

There is no reason to give up your favorite foods on a diabetes diet. Instead, try:

Changing the way your favorite foods are prepared
Changing the other foods you usually eat along with your favorite foods
Reducing the serving sizes of your favorite foods
Using your favorite foods as a reward for following your meal plans
A dietitian can help you find ways to include your favorites in your diabetes meal plans.

Myth 7: You Have to Give Up Desserts if You Have Diabetes.

Not true! You can develop many strategies for including desserts in a diabetes diet. Here are some examples:

Use artificial sweeteners in desserts.
Cut back on the amount of dessert. For example, instead of two scoops of ice cream, have one. Or share a dessert with a friend.
Use desserts as an occasional reward for following your diabetes diet plan.
Make desserts more nutritious. For example, use whole grains, fresh fruit, and vegetable oil when preparing desserts. Many times, you can use less sugar than a recipe calls for without sacrificing taste or consistency.
Expand your dessert horizons. Instead of ice cream, pie, or cake, try fruit, a whole-wheat oatmeal-raisin cookie, or yogurt.
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Myth 8: Artificial Sweeteners Are Dangerous for People with Diabetes.

Artificial sweeteners are much sweeter than the equivalent amount of sugar, so it takes less of them to get the same sweetness found in sugar. This can result in eating fewer calories than when you do use sugar.

The American Diabetes Association approves the use of several artificial sweeteners in diabetes diets, including:

Saccharin (Sweet'N Low)
Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal)
Acesulfame potassium (Sunett)
Sucralose (Splenda)
A dietitian can help you determine, which sweeteners are best for which uses, whether in coffee, baking, cooking, or other uses.

Artificial sweeteners have recently received much attention in both the media and research with conflicting data. Educate yourself and determine, which, if any, sweeteners are best for you. There are more ‘natural’ sweeteners coming on the market that may give better options.

Myth 9: You Need to Eat Special Diabetic Meals.

The truth is that there really is no such as thing as a "diabetic diet." The foods that are healthy for people with diabetes are also good choices for the rest of your family. Usually, there is no need to prepare special diabetic meals.

The difference between a diabetes diet and your family's "normal" diet is this: If you have diabetes, you need to monitor what you eat a little more closely. This includes the total amount of calories you consume and the amounts and types of carbohydrates, fats, and protein you eat. A diabetes educator or dietitian can help you learn how to do this.

Myth 10: Diet Foods Are the Best Choices for Diabetes.

Just because a food is labeled as a "diet" food does not mean it is a better choice for people with diabetes. In fact, "diet" foods can be expensive and be as healthy as foods found in the "regular" sections of the grocery store, or foods you prepare yourself.

As with any food you choose, read the labels carefully to find out if the ingredients and amount of calories are good choices for you. If you have doubts, ask your diabetes educator or a dietitian for advice.

Moving Beyond Diabetes Diet Myths

Now that you know the facts about diabetes diets, you can take steps to learn even more about making wise food choices. Together with exercise and medication, you can use what you eat as an effective tool for keeping your blood sugar levels within normal ranges. That is the best diabetes diet of all.

http://diabetes.webmd.com/10-diabetes-diet-myths
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