Diabetes Health Center

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد مايو 11, 2014 6:34 am

ما هو دواء الانسولين

الانسولين (Insulin) هو هرمون ينتجه البنكرياس. ويعتبر وجوده حيويا في عدد من عمليات الايض (الاستقلاب / تبادل المواد - Metabolism)، والتي اكثرها شهرة هي عملية مراقبة مستويات (تركيز) السكر في الدم. تم التعرف على عقار الانسولين كدواء منذ سنوات الـ 20 في القرن الماضي، ويعطى بالحقـن، كاضافة او كبديل للانسولين الطبيعي في اطار العلاج لمرض السكري.

يعتبر الانسولين العلاج الناجع الوحيد لسكري اليافعين ( Juvenile - onset diabetes) (او: السكري المعتمد على الانسولين - Insulin dependent diabetes)، كما يعطى علاجا لمرض السكري الذي يصيب البالغين. يجب تعاطيه مع الحفاظ على تغذية متوازنة ومراقبة بشدة، كما قد تكون هنالك حاجة لتغيير الجرعات في بعض حالات الاصابة بامراض، التقيؤ، تغييرات في التغذية او في مستويات النشاط الجسماني.

هنالك تشكيلة واسعة من مستحضرات الانسولين، التي يدوم تاثيرها لفترة قصيرة، متوسطة او طويلة. في بعض الاحيان، يتم الدمج بين عدة انواع من الانسولين.

على الاشخاص الذين يتعاطون الانسولين ان يحملوا معهم، دائما، بطاقة تحذيرية تشير الى ذلك، لكي يكون بالامكان اعطاؤهم العلاج المناسب اذا ما اصيبوا باغماء (فقـد الوعي).

تعليمات
طريقة التناول:
حقـن، قلم للحقـن.

عدد الجرعات:
تختلف الجرعات باختلاف نوع المستحضر / المستحضرات المستخدمة وباختلاف حاجة المريض الفردية. وتتراوح الجرعة، بشكل عام، بين مرة واحدة الى اربع مرات يوميا، قبل تناول الطعام بـ 30 الى 45 دقيقة، وكذلك قبل النوم.

الجرعة:
تتحدد الجرعة ونوع المستحضر بحسب احتياجات المريض.

بداية الفعالية:
فاعلية قصيرة الامد: 30 - 60 دقيقة.

فاعلية متوسطة الامد او متواصلة: 1 - 4 ساعات.

مدة الفعالية
فعالية قصيرة المدى: 6 - 8 ساعات; لها مجال متوسط 18 - 26 ساعة. فعالية متواصلة : 28 - 36 ساعة.

تغذية:
يتطلب تغذية قليلة الكربوهيدرات والدهنيات. يجب الالتزام بتعليمات الطبيب.

التخزين والحفظ:
يجب حفظه في التبريد دون تجميده. يجب اتباع التعليمات المسجلة على العبوة.

نسيان الجرعة:
يجب استشارة الطبيب. التصرف الصحيح يتعلق بحجم الجرعة وبنوع الانسولين.

وقف الدواء:
لا يجوز التوقف عن تناول الدواء دون استشارة الطبيب. التوقف عن تعاطيه من الممكن ان يؤدي الى اضطرابات وبلبلة وحتى الى فقـد الوعي.

جرعة زائدة:
يجب التوجه الى غرفة الطوارئ في المستشفى فورا. من الممكن ظهور علامات تشير الى هبوط حاد في مستويات (تركيز) السكر في الدم، مثل الاغماء، الجوع، التعرق، الرعشة، البلبلة والصداع. اذا ظهرت هذه الاعراض، يجب تناول طعام او شراب غني بالسكر فورا. هنالك حاجة للتصرف وفق تعليمات حالات الطوارئ عند حصول اضطرابات او فقد الوعي.

تحذيرات
اثناء الحمل:
لا تتوفر ابحاث كافية، لكن حسنات العلاج بالانسولين تفوق كثيرا سيئات مستويات السكر غير المتوازنة.

الرضاعة:
مسموح. لا توجد دلائل على وجود خطر على الطفل.
الاطفال والرضع
يجب تقليل وملائمة الجرعه حسب الجيل والوزن.

كبار السن:
لا توجد مشاكل خاصه.

السياقة:
يجب الامتناع عن السياقه حتى تتضح ماهية تاثير الدواء، حيث من الممكن ان يسبب ضبابية (طمس).

العملية الجراحية والتخدير:
يجب ابلاغ الطبيب الجراح او الطبيب المخدر عن استعمال هذا الدواء.

المزيد
http://www.webteb.com/drug/22/%D8%A7%D9 ... eft_column

المزيد ايضا
viewtopic.php?f=88&t=322&p=743#p743
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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء أغسطس 26, 2014 8:50 am

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فيدوهات تثقيفية من إنتاج كل الطب
http://www.alltebfamily.com/vb/thread51 ... post340920

للتوعية عن مرض السكر وكيفية الوقاية من مضاعفاته


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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء أغسطس 26, 2014 8:52 am

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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء أغسطس 26, 2014 8:55 am

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء أغسطس 26, 2014 8:59 am

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 05, 2014 6:45 am

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 05, 2014 6:57 am

Hypoglycemia


Definition
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose), your body's main energy source.

Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with the treatment of diabetes. However, a variety of conditions, many of them rare, can cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes. Like fever, hypoglycemia isn't a disease itself — it's an indicator of a health problem.

Immediate treatment of hypoglycemia involves quick steps to get your blood sugar level back into a normal range — about 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL (3.9 to 5.6 millimoles per liter or mmol/L) — either with high-sugar foods or medications. Long-term treatment requires identifying and treating the underlying cause of hypoglycemia.

Symptoms
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Your body needs a steady supply of sugar (glucose) in order to function properly. If glucose levels become too low, as occurs with hypoglycemia, it can have these effects on your brain:

Confusion, abnormal behavior or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks
Visual disturbances, such as double vision and blurred vision
Seizures, though uncommon
Loss of consciousness, though uncommon
Hypoglycemia may also cause these other signs and symptoms:

Heart palpitations
Shakiness
Anxiety
Sweating
Hunger
Tingling sensation around the mouth
These signs and symptoms aren't specific to hypoglycemia. There may be other causes. An intravenous blood sample to test your blood sugar level at the time of these signs and symptoms is the only way to know for sure that hypoglycemia is the cause.

When to see a doctor

Seek a doctor's help immediately if:

You have what appears to be symptoms of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia, if confirmed, can be an indication of any number of illnesses, all of which can be serious.
You have diabetes and early signs of hypoglycemia don't improve with eating or taking glucose tablets.
Seek emergency help if someone you know who has diabetes or a history of recurring hypoglycemia loses consciousness.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-cond ... n-20021103
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 05, 2014 7:12 am

Causes
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Hypoglycemia occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) level falls too low. There are several reasons why this may happen, the most common being a side effect of drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. But to understand how hypoglycemia happens, it helps to know how your body normally regulates blood sugar production, absorption and storage.

Blood sugar regulation

During digestion, your body breaks down carbohydrates from foods — such as bread, rice, pasta, vegetables, fruit and milk products — into various sugar molecules. One of these sugar molecules is glucose, the main energy source for your body. Glucose is absorbed into your bloodstream after you eat, but it can't enter the cells of most of your tissues without the help of insulin — a hormone secreted by your pancreas.

When the level of glucose in your blood rises, it signals certain cells (beta cells) in your pancreas, located behind your stomach, to release insulin. The insulin, in turn, unlocks your cells so that glucose can enter and provide the fuel your cells need to function properly. Any extra glucose is stored in your liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. This process lowers the level of glucose in your bloodstream and prevents it from reaching dangerously high levels. As your blood sugar level returns to normal, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.

If you haven't eaten for several hours and your blood sugar level drops, another hormone from your pancreas called glucagon signals your liver to break down the stored glycogen and release glucose back into your bloodstream. This keeps your blood sugar level within a normal range until you eat again.

Aside from your liver breaking down glycogen into glucose, your body also has the ability to manufacture glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. This process occurs primarily in your liver, but also in your kidneys, and makes use of various substances that are precursors to glucose.

Possible causes, with diabetes

If you have diabetes, the effects of insulin on your body are drastically diminished, either because your pancreas doesn't produce enough of it (type 1 diabetes) or because your cells are less responsive to it (type 2 diabetes). As a result, glucose tends to build up in your bloodstream and may reach dangerously high levels.
To correct this problem, you likely take insulin or other drugs designed to lower blood sugar levels.

If you take too much insulin relative to the amount of glucose in your bloodstream, it can cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, resulting in hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia may also result if, after taking your diabetes medication, you don't eat as much as usual (ingesting less glucose) or you exercise more (using up more glucose) than you normally would. To prevent this from happening, it's likely that your doctor will work with you to find the optimum dosage that fits your regular eating and activity habits.


Possible causes, without diabetes

: Hypoglycemia in people without diabetes is much less common. Causes may include the following

Medications. Taking someone else's oral diabetes medication accidentally is a possible cause of hypoglycemia. Other medications may cause hypoglycemia, especially in children or in people with kidney failure. One example is quinine, which is used to treat malaria.
Excessive alcohol consumption. Drinking heavily without eating can block your liver from releasing stored glucose into your bloodstream, causing hypoglycemia.
Some critical illnesses. Severe illnesses of the liver, such as severe hepatitis, can cause hypoglycemia. Disorders of the kidney, which can keep your body from properly excreting medications, can affect glucose levels due to a buildup of those medications. Long-term starvation, as may occur in the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, can result in the depletion of substances your body needs in gluconeogenesis, causing hypoglycemia.
Insulin overproduction. A rare tumor of the pancreas (insulinoma) may cause overproduction of insulin, resulting in hypoglycemia. Other tumors may result in excessive production of insulin-like substances. Or the tumors themselves may use up too much glucose. Enlargement of beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin (nesidioblastosis) may result in excessive insulin release, causing hypoglycemia. People who've undergone gastric bypass surgery are at risk of this condition.
Endocrine deficiencies. Certain disorders of the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland can result in a deficiency of key hormones that regulate glucose production. Children with these disorders are more prone to hypoglycemia than are adults.


Hypoglycemia after meals

Most hypoglycemia occurs when you haven't eaten (when you're in a fasting state), but that's not always the case. Sometimes hypoglycemia occurs after meals because the body produces more insulin than is needed. This type of hypoglycemia, called reactive or postprandial hypoglycemia, may occur in people who have had gastric bypass surgery. It may also occur in people who haven't had surgery.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-cond ... n-20021103
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 05, 2014 7:19 am

Complications
By Mayo Clinic Staff

If you ignore the symptoms of hypoglycemia too long, you may lose consciousness. That's because your brain needs glucose to function properly.

: Recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia early because untreated hypoglycemia can lead to

Seizure
Loss of consciousness
Death, primarily in those with diabetes
On the other hand, if you have diabetes, be careful not to overtreat your low blood sugar. If you do, you may cause your blood sugar level to rise too high. This, too, can be dangerous and may cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels and various organs.


Tests and diagnosis
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Your doctor will use three criteria — often referred to as Whipple's triad — to diagnose hypoglycemia. Whipple's triad includes the following factors:

Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. You may not exhibit signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia during your initial visit with your doctor. In this case, your doctor may have you fast overnight. This will allow hypoglycemic symptoms to occur so that he or she can make a diagnosis. It's also possible that you'll need to undergo an extended fast in a hospital setting. Or if your symptoms occur after a meal, your doctor will want to test your glucose levels after a meal
Documentation of low blood glucose when the signs and symptoms occur. Your doctor will draw a sample of your blood to be analyzed in the laboratory.
Disappearance of the signs and symptoms. The third part of the diagnostic triad involves whether your signs and symptoms go away when blood glucose levels are raised.
In addition, your doctor will likely conduct a physical examination and review your medical history.
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Re: Diabetes Health Center

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 05, 2014 7:22 am

hypoglycemia
Treatments and drugs
By Mayo Clinic Staff

: Treatment of hypoglycemia involves

Immediate initial treatment to raise your blood sugar level
Treatment of the underlying condition that's causing your hypoglycemia to prevent it from recurring

Immediate initial treatment

The initial treatment depends on your symptoms. Early symptoms can usually be treated by consuming sugar, such as eating candy, drinking fruit juice or taking glucose tablets to raise your blood sugar level. If your symptoms are more severe, impairing your ability to take sugar by mouth, you may need an injection of glucagon or intravenous glucose. If you're prone to severe episodes of hypoglycemia, ask your doctor if a home glucagon kit might be appropriate for you.

Treatment of the underlying condition

Preventing recurrent hypoglycemia requires your doctor to identify the underlying condition and treat it. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment may involve:

Medications. If a medication is the cause of your hypoglycemia, your doctor will likely suggest changing the medication or adjusting the dosage.
Tumor treatment. A tumor in your pancreas is treated by surgical removal. Nesidioblastosis, enlargement of the pancreatic cells that make insulin, may be treated by partial removal of the pancreas.


Prevention
By Mayo Clinic Staff

If you have diabetes, carefully follow the diabetes management plan you and your doctor have developed.
If you don't have diabetes but have recurring episodes of hypoglycemia, eating frequent small meals throughout the day is a stopgap measure to help prevent your blood sugar levels from getting too low. However, this approach isn't an advisable long-term strategy. Work with your doctor to identity and treat the underlying cause of hypoglycemia.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-cond ... n-20021103
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