Lung Cancer

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Lung Cancer

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يناير 18, 2019 7:46 pm


مشاركات: 11468
اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

Re: Lung Cancer

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الاثنين فبراير 11, 2019 6:31 pm

Lung Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatment
Lung Cancer: The Leading Cause of Cancer Death ... spc_020119

Lung cancer has emerged as the leading killer of men and women stricken with invasive cancer, affecting husbands and wives, friends and neighbors, and causing suffering for many families. In the United States, lung cancer overtook breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women in 1987. Lung cancer deaths account for a quarter of all American cancer deaths, killing more people every year than prostate, breast, and colon cancer combined. Over 157,000 Americans are estimated to have died from lung cancer in 2015.

Those with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer—the most common type—have an estimated 1 percent survival rate five years after diagnosis. The other type of lung cancer—small cell lung cancer—is even more aggressive. According to the American Cancer Society, the overall survival rate for lung cancer as of Jan. 1, 2014 stands at just 3%.
The major cause of lung cancer in men and women is mainly due to cigarette smoking.
cigarettes and cigarette smoke contains over 70 cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens). Some of the carcinogens found in cigarette smoke include:

Lead (a highly poisonous metal)
Arsenic (an insecticide)
Cadmium (a battery component)
Isoprene (used to make synthetic rubber)
Benzene (a gasoline additive)
Cigar smoke is particularly heavy on tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), which are considered particularly cancerous.

Lung Cancer and Cilia
Cigarette smoke damages and can kill hair-like projections on airway cells termed cilia. The cilia normally sweep out toxins, carcinogens, viruses, and bacteria. When the cilia are damaged or destroyed by smoke, all of these items may accumulate in the lungs and may cause problems such as infections or lung cancer.

Depending on the advancement of the cancer, other early signs of lung cancer symptoms may include a lack of sweating, dilated neck veins, face swelling, excessively constricted pupils, and other signs. The physical exam will also include the patient’s history of smoking and a chest X-ray.

Lung Cancer: Biopsy
As stated previously, a tissue sample taken from the patient’s suspected cancer is usually the best method to establish a definitive lung cancer diagnosis. In general, lung biopsies are obtained by either needle biopsy, a lung bronchoscopy technique, or by surgical removal of tissue. Many other tests may be done to get more information about the cancer’s spread.

See the following slides for types of lung cancer and lung cancer stages, including stage IV lung cancer.

Types of Lung Cancer
There are only two major types of lung cancers: small cell lung cancer
and non-small cell lung cancers. Less than 5% of lung cancer tumors will take the form of a carcinoid tumor, while other cancerous tumors are even more rare, including adenoid cystic carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas. Although cancer from another part of the body may spread to the lungs, these are not categorized as lung cancer.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancers are the most common type of lung cancer. These cancers account for about 90% of all lung cancers and are less aggressive than small cell lung cancers, meaning they spread to other tissues and organs more slowly.

Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer, also called oat cell lung cancer, accounts for about 10% of all lung cancers. This form of cancer tends to spread quickly.

Lung Cancer Stages: Stage 0 Through Stage 4
After the type of lung cancer is determined, the type is then assigned a lung cancer stage.
The stage indicates how much the cancer has spread in the body (for example, to the lymph nodes or to distant organs like the brain).
Stages for non-small cell lung cancers are different from small cell lung cancers.
The stages listed below are taken from the National Cancer Institute’s lung cancer staging information:

Small Cell Lung Cancer Stages
Limited stage: In this form, small cell lung cancer is limited to one side of the chest, typically in the lungs and lymph nodes. About one in three people with small cell lung cancer have limited stage cancer upon the first diagnosis.

Extensive stage: This refers to small cell lung cancer that has spread throughout one lung, spread into both lungs, to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or to other body parts. About two in three people with small cell lung cancer have extensive stage cancer upon first diagnosis.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stages
Occult (hidden) stage: In this stage, cancer cells appear in a sputum cytology exam or other test, though no tumor location can be found.

Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ): In this lung cancer stage, cancer cells are only found in the top layer of cells lining air passages and has not crept deeper into the lungs or spread beyond the air passages.

Stage I: A small lung cancer tumor (less than 3 centimeters across) is discovered, but has not spread to surrounding lung membranes, lymph nodes, or the main bronchial branches of the lungs.

Stage II: There are several ways that stage II lung cancer may be diagnosed. One is that the lung cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the lungs.

Stage IIA: If the tumor is between 3 centimeters and 5 centimeters, the lung cancer is defined as stage IIA. Other factors can lead to this classification as well.
Stage IIB: If the lung cancer tumor is between 5 centimeters and 7 centimeters, it is categorized as Stage IIB. Other factors can lead to this classification as well.
Stage III: As in stage II lung cancer, stage III has several definitions. One is that the lung cancer is found in both the lung and lymph nodes in the middle of the chest. Stage III lung cancer is divided into two subsets.
Stage IIIA: This defines a lung cancer that has spread on the same side of the chest from where it started.
Stage IIIB: This defines a lung cancer in which the cancer has spread to either the opposite side of the chest or above the collar bone.
Stage IV: This is the most advanced stage of lung cancer. The cancer can be any size, but two of these three things have happened:
The cancer has @ spread to the opposite lung from where it began.
Cancer cells have been discovered in the @ fluid surrounding the lung.
Cancer cells have been discovered in the fluid @ surrounding the heart.

Lung Cancer Survival Rates
The American Cancer Society statistics are currently based on people diagnosed between 1998 and 2000 so the data may not reflect the effects of newer treatments. The data indicates that survival rates of patients living 5 years after being diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancers was dependent on the stage of the disease.

Stage I was about 49% (with surgical removal, about 75%) while stage IV survival was about 1%. Small cell lung cancers are more aggressive and the data, like that for non-small cell lung cancers, is not reflective of current survival rates.
However, even some data collected as late as 2008 indicates slow progress in increasing 5-year survival rates. The overall rate of both limited-stage and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer is about 6%. The overall rate of all stages (I to IV combined) non-small cell lung cancer is about 15%.

Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treatment: Surgery
Lung cancer surgery.
Early stage (stage 0 or even some stage I) cancer treatment of non-small cell lung cancer may benefit from surgery. Part or all of a lung segment that contains the cancer may be removed; in some individuals, this may result in a cure. However, many patients still undergo chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both to kill any cancer cells not removed by surgery. Because small cell lung cancers are almost never diagnosed early, surgery (and other treatments) may prolong life but rarely, if ever, result in a cure.

Advanced Lung Cancer Treatment
Most small cell and non-small-cell lung cancers are treated with chemotherapy; they may also be treated with radiation therapy and surgery. In many patients with advanced disease, these methods may be used together, depending on the patient's condition and recommendations by their cancer doctors.

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