URINALYSIS

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URINALYSIS

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة مايو 06, 2016 9:35 am

Urinalysis - OSCE Guide
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة مايو 06, 2016 9:36 am

Interpretation of the Urinalysis (Part 1) - Introduction and Inspection
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة مايو 06, 2016 9:38 am

Interpretation of the Urinalysis (Part 2) - The Dipstick
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Re: URINALYSIS

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة مايو 06, 2016 9:39 am

Interpretation of the Urinalysis (Part 3) - Microscopy and Summary
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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأربعاء فبراير 13, 2019 9:35 pm

ازاى تقرا تحليل البول
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Re: URINALYSIS

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس مايو 02, 2019 9:43 pm

24hour Urine Protein Test

The 24-hour urine protein test checks the function of the kidneys and detects disease. Urine samples are collected in one or more containers over a period of 24 hours. The containers are kept in a cool environment and then sent to a lab for analysis. Specialists then check the urine for protein. The test is simple and noninvasive.

When higher-than-normal amounts of protein are in the urine, it is called proteinuria. Proteinuria is often a sign of kidney damage and disease.

The test does not show what kinds of protein are in the urine. To determine this, your doctor may also order tests such as a serum and urine protein electrophoresis. The test also does not show the cause of the protein.

Occasionally proteinuria is not a sign of kidney damage. This is especially true for children. Protein levels may be higher during the day than the night. Other factors, such as extreme stress, may also influence the test results.

Why Is the 24-Hour Urine Protein Test Given?
A 24-hour urine protein test is given if you have symptoms of glomerulonephritis, a type of kidney disease, or other conditions that affect the kidneys, such as:

uncontrolled diabetes
high blood pressure
lupus (an autoimmune disease)
urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Unlike a protein-to-creatinine ratio test, which is just one sample of urine, the 24-hour urine protein test consists of multiple samples of urine taken over a 24-hour period. The 24-hour urine protein test may be given as a follow-up to a positive protein-to-creatinine ratio test.

How Is the 24-Hour Urine Protein Test Given?
The test does not require anything other than normal urination. There are no risks involved.

The test may be performed at home or while you are staying at the hospital. Generally, you will be given one or more containers to collect and store your urine over a 24-hour time period.

Usually, you will start in the morning. You will urinate, flush down the urine, and then begin keeping track of time. You will collect the rest of your urine for the next 24 hours.

Save your urine from the 24-hour time period, storing it in a cool environment. It can be kept cool in the refrigerator or on ice in a cooler.

Label the container with your name, date, and time of completion ake your urine to the lab for analysis. If you are at home, your healthcare provider will tell you how to transport the urine.

What Do 24-Hour Urine Protein Test Results Mean?
According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a normal test result shows less than 80 milligrams of protein per day. Test results may vary slightly between laboratories. Ask your doctor about the exact meaning of your test results (NIH, 2011).

Protein in the urine may signify kidney damage or disease. Protein levels may also rise temporarily due to factors such as infection, stress, or excess exercise.

If the protein is caused by kidney damage, the amount of protein usually shows how bad the kidney damage is. Very high levels of protein may mean serious kidney damage.

Proteinura is associated with many other conditions. These include:

amyloidosis (abnormal presence of amyloid proteins in organs and tissues)
bladder canceror tumors
congestive heart failure
diabetes
urinary tract infection (UTI)
use of medications that damage the kidneys
Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (a type of white blood cell cancer)
glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the blood vessels in the kidneys)
Goodpasture’s syndrome (a rare autoimmune disease)
heavy metal poisoning
hypertension
kidney infection
multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells)
lupus (an inflammatory autoimmune disease)
polycystic kidney disease (cysts on the kidneys)
How Do I Prepare for the 24-Hour Urine Protein Test?
Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the test. You may have to stop taking certain medications that can interfere with the test results.

Other factors can also interfere with test results. These may include:

dehydration (not drinking enough water)
having a radiology exam with contrast media (dye) within three days of the test
extreme emotional stress
urinary tract infection (UTI)
vigorous exercise
urine mixed with vaginal secretions, blood, or semen
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Re: URINALYSIS

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس مايو 02, 2019 9:43 pm

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مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس مايو 02, 2019 9:44 pm

24-hour urine proteinShare on facebookShare on twitterBookmark & SharePrinter-friendly version
24-hour urine protein measures the amount of protein released in urine over a 24-hour period.

How the Test is Performed
A 24-hour urine sample is needed:

On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning.
Afterward, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours.
On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning.
Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.
Label the container with your name, the date, the time of completion, and return it as instructed.
For an infant, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on the infant. For males, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For females, place the bag over the labia. Diaper as usual over the secured bag.

This procedure may take a couple of attempts -- lively infants can move the bag, causing the urine to be absorbed by the diaper. The infant should be checked frequently and the bag changed after the infant has urinated into the bag. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider.

Deliver it to the laboratory or your health care provider as soon as possible upon completion.

How to Prepare for the Test
Your health care provider will tell you, if needed, to stop taking any medicines that may interfere with the test results. Make sure your health care provider knows about all medications, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking.

The following may also affect test results:

A lack of fluid (dehydration)
Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test
Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine
Severe emotional stress
Strenuous exercise
Urinary tract infection
How the Test will Feel
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

Why the Test is Performed
Your doctor may order this test if blood, urine, or imaging tests find signs of damage to kidney function.

To avoid a 24-hour urine collection, your doctor may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio).

Normal Results
The normal value is less than 150 milligrams per day or less than 10 milligrams per deciliter of urine.

The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results may be due to:

A group of diseases in which a protein called amyloid builds up in the organs and tissues (amyloidosis)
Bladder tumor
Heart failure
High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia)
Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, a blockage in the kidney system, certain medications, toxins, a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes
Multiple myeloma
Healthy people may have higher than normal urine protein levels after strenuous exercise or when they are dehydrated. Some foods may affect urine protein levels.

Risks
The test involves normal urination and there are no risks.

Alternative Names
Urine protein - 24 hour

References
Israni AK, Kasiske BL. Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: glomerular filtration rate, urinalysis, and proteinuria. In: Teal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, eds. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 25.

McPherson RA, Ben-Ezra J. Basic examination of urine. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28.

Update Date: 8/17/2014
Updated by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency ... 003622.htm
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