introduction

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اشترك في: الخميس إبريل 04, 2013 10:28 pm

introduction

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الخميس مايو 30, 2013 6:06 am

Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
In nuclear medicine procedures, radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals.

These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs or cellular receptors. This property of radiopharmaceuticals allows nuclear medicine the ability to image the extent of a disease process in the body, based on the cellular function and physiology, rather than relying on physical changes in the tissue anatomy.

In some diseases, nuclear medicine studies can identify medical problems at an earlier stage than other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine, in a sense, is "radiology done inside out", or "endo-radiology", because it records radiation emitting from within the body rather than radiation that is generated by external sources like X-rays.

Treatment of diseased tissue, based on metabolism or uptake or binding of a particular ligand, may also be accomplished, similar to other areas of pharmacology. However, the treatment effects of radiopharmaceuticals rely on the tissue-destructive power of short-range ionizing radiation.

In the future, nuclear medicine may provide added impetus to the field known as molecular medicine. As understanding of biological processes in the cells of living organisms expands, specific probes can be developed to allow visualization, characterization, and quantification of biologic processes at the cellular and subcellular levels.

Nuclear medicine is a possible specialty for adapting to the new discipline of molecular medicine because of its emphasis on function and its utilization of imaging agents that are specific for a particular disease process.

Diagnostic medical imaging

In nuclear medicine imaging, radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, for example, intravenously or orally. Then, external detectors (gamma cameras) capture and form images from the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceuticals.
This process is unlike a diagnostic X-ray, where external radiation is passed through the body to form an image.
There are several techniques of diagnostic nuclear medicine.

Nuclear medicine tests differ from most other imaging modalities in that diagnostic tests primarily show the physiological function of the system being investigated as opposed to traditional anatomical imaging such as CT or MRI.

Nuclear medicine imaging studies are generally more organ- or tissue-specific (e.g.: lungs scan, heart scan, bone scan, brain scan, etc.) than those in conventional radiology imaging, which focus on a particular section of the body (e.g.: chest X-ray, abdomen/pelvis CT scan, head CT scan, etc.).

In addition, there are nuclear medicine studies that allow imaging of the whole body based on certain cellular receptors or functions. Examples are whole body PET scans or PET/CT scans, gallium scans, indium white blood cell scans, MIBG and octreotide scans.

Interventional nuclear medicine

Radionuclide therapy can be used to treat conditions such as hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, and blood disorders.
In nuclear medicine therapy, the radiation treatment dose is administered internally (e.g. intravenous or oral routes) rather from an external radiation source.

The radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine therapy emit ionizing radiation that travels only a short distance, thereby minimizing unwanted side effects and damage to noninvolved organs or nearby structures. Most nuclear medicine therapies can be performed as outpatient procedures since there are few side effects from the treatment and the radiation exposure to the general public can be kept within a safe limit

Common nuclear medicine therapies

Substance Condition
Iodine-131-sodium iodide hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer
Yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and Iodine-131-tositumomab (Bexxar) refractory lymphoma
131I-MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) neuroendocrine tumors
Samarium-153 or Strontium-89 palliative bone pain treatment


The most commonly used intravenous radionuclides are:

Technetium-99m (technetium-99m)
Iodine-123 and 131
Thallium-201
Gallium-67
Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose
Indium-111 Labeled Leukocytes

The most commonly used gaseous/aerosol radionuclides are:

Xenon-133
Krypton-81m
Technetium-99m Technegas[dead link] a radioaerosol invented in Australia by Dr Bill Burch and Dr Richard Fawdry
Technetium-99m DTPA

المزيد على الرابط

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_medicine
صورة

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العودة إلى nuclear medicine الطب النووى

الموجودون الآن

المستخدمون المتصفحون لهذا المنتدى: لا يوجد أعضاء مسجلين متصلين و 1 زائر

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