Hepatology

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Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 07, 2013 6:15 pm

Hepatitis B lecture! Everything you need to know about the disease!






Hyperbilirubuminemia - Jaundice







Recognizing and Treating Jaundice
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يونيو 07, 2013 6:29 pm

Bilirubin 1 - Bilirubin Pathway
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة أغسطس 16, 2013 11:01 pm

Liver Tests: Use and Interpretation




LOTS MORE LIVER VIDEOS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LErNbfx0qPA
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة سبتمبر 27, 2013 9:15 am

Liver Function Tests, Chemistry Profiles and case studies







Liver Tests: Use and Interpretation
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة مارس 28, 2014 9:53 am

cirrhosis portahypertension.ppt
http://www.4shared.com/office/iSdpTHO_/
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء إبريل 01, 2014 11:10 pm

Primary biliary cirrhosis


Primary biliary cirrhosis, often abbreviated PBC, is an autoimmune disease of the liver[1][2] marked by the slow progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts (Canals of Hering) affected early in the disease.[3]
When these ducts are damaged, bile builds up in the liver (cholestasis) and over time damages the tissue. This can lead to scarring, fibrosis and cirrhosis.
It was previously thought to be a rare disease, but more recent studies have shown that it may affect up to 1 in 3–4,000 people; the sex ratio is at least 9:1 (female to male


Signs and symptoms

: Individuals with PBC may present with the following
Fatigue-
(Pruritus (itchy skin-
Jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), due to increased bilirubin in the blood.-
(Xanthoma (local collections of cholesterol in the skin, especially around the eyes) (xanthelasma -
: Complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension -
(Fluid retention in the abdomen (ascites *
Hypersplenism*
Esophageal varices*
Hepatic encephalopathy, including coma in extreme cases.*
Association with an extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis -
(or Sjögren's syndrome (in up to 80% of cases

Causes

The cause of the disease is unknown at this time, but research indicates that there is an immunological basis for the disease, making it an autoimmune disorder. Most of the patients (>90%) seem to have anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), an enzyme complex that is found in the mitochondria.

Primary biliary cirrhosis is considerably more common in those with gluten sensitive enteropathy than the normal population.[5][6]
In some cases of disease protein expression may cause an immune tolerance failure, as might be the case with gp210 and p62, nuclear pore proteins.
Gp210 has increased expression in the bile duct of anti-gp210 positive patients.

Both proteins appear to be prognostic of liver failure relative to anti-mitochondrial antibodies.
A genetic predisposition to disease has been thought important for some time, as evident by cases of PBC in family members, concordance in identical twins, and clustering of autoimmune diseases. In 2009 a Canadian led group of investigators reported in the New England Journal of Medicine results from the first PBC genome-wide association study.[8][9]

This research revealed parts of the IL12 signaling cascade, particularly IL12A and IL12RB2 polymorphisms, to be important in the etiology of the disease in addition to the HLA region. In 2012, two independent PBC association studies increased the total number of genomic regions associated to 26, implicating many genes involved in cytokine regulation such as TYK2, SH2B3 and TNFSF11.

In 2003 it was reported that an environmental Gram negative alphabacterium — Novosphingobium aromaticivorans[12] was strongly associated with this disease.
Subsequent reports appear to have confirmed this finding suggesting an aetiological role for this organism.
The mechanism appears to be a cross reaction between the proteins of the bacterium and the mitochondrial proteins of the liver cells.[16] The gene encoding CD101 may also play a role in host susceptibility to this disease.

Summary of stages

Stage 1 — Portal Stage: Normal sized triads; portal inflammation, subtle bile duct damage. Granulomas are often detected in this stage.

Stage 2 — Periportal Stage: Enlarged triads; periportal fibrosis and/or inflammation. Typically characterized by the finding of a proliferation of small bile ducts.

Stage 3 — Septal Stage: Active and/or passive fibrous septa.

Stage 4 — Biliary Cirrhosis: Nodules present; garland

READ MORE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_biliary_cirrhosis
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الأحد إبريل 06, 2014 5:46 pm

" من شرح دكتور محمد الشافعي ,,

عيانين ال fulminant hepatic failure
يتميزوا عن ال chronic liver cell failure

عندهم edema في ال brain
Massive edema

لدرجة إنهم بيموتوا من ال brain herniation
قبل ما يطلعلهم jaundice

فكتير أوووي من العيانين اللي عندهم fulminant hepatic failure
يجيلك ب hepatic encephalopathy
ويموت قبل ما يظهر عليه Jaundice

وبالتالي عمر سيادتك ما هتفكر في Liver
عمرك ما هتعمل investigations للliver
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الثلاثاء إبريل 07, 2015 3:29 pm

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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » الجمعة يناير 18, 2019 7:09 pm

What Is Fatty Liver Disease? Take the Quiz!

Liver Disease Quiz: Fatty Liver Disease, Cirrhosis & Symptoms

https://www.medicinenet.com/liver_disea ... spc_122018
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Re: Hepatology

مشاركةبواسطة دكتور كمال سيد » السبت فبراير 09, 2019 9:16 pm

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